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定制木门趋势日益蓬勃,个性定制渐成潮流

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 广东将探索建立共有产权住房制度 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

重庆LED照明市场调研:终端市场“僧多粥少” 经销商还挺得住吗?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

ICBC said net profits increased 0.5 per cent for the year to December 31 2015 — the smallest increase since it listed. Returns on average total assets declined 0.1 percentage points to 1.30 per cent.
receptive
年过40方当妈的女星们
潘通色彩研究所(Pantone Color Institute)的执行总监莱亚特丽斯·艾斯曼(Leatrice Eiseman)说:把这两种颜色组合起来反应出“一种令人慰籍的秩序感与和平感”,在这个全球动荡和缺乏安全感的时代,把这种感觉融入产品应该具有吸引力。它也暗示着,“我们”和“他们”之间没有界线。
对可穿戴技术有兴趣的不止是科技公司。梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)正在将移动体验移植到可穿戴设备上,而维珍航空(Virgin Atlantic)正在试验性地探索谷歌眼镜在顾客服务上的应用。
输家:国王
这一问题也打击了中国在WTO框架内获得市场经济地位的努力。中国声称,在其加入WTO满15周年的今年12月,应当自动获得市场经济地位。如果中国获得了该地位,那么这可能影响美国等国对中国发起反倾销案的能力,因为这将使他们不能用替代国的价格进行比价。

adj. 有才能的,有天赋的
AIj|MhT7HH]
35岁的阿德里亚娜·利马身着一件凸显身材的白色抹胸式礼服。这位巴西模特选择了简单又时髦的装扮,她把头发扎了起来,戴着一条抢眼的项链,项链上缀满了钻石。
抓好金融体制改革。
These are the official James Bond theme songs, ranked from worst to best, with two honorable mentions because they may or may not count, but were just that good, dang it.

Footnotes

  • 家居建材业“跑路潮”涌现 逃避现实非明智之举
  • 3. Enlisted military personnel

"She gave her surname as Han when registering, which is also different from the name Su in media reports," the employee said.
28 September
14. “Grandma” (Paul Weitz)
这几年的实践可以证明,中国经济“硬着陆”论可以休矣。我们会长期保持中高速增长,并迈向中高端水平。
除了深圳、广州和北京,上海也是毕业生就业找工作最受欢迎的城市。此外,中部和西部的省会城市也是毕业生就业的首选之地。
Despite the huge production, the focus was on the 40 gorgeous models who walked the runway.

艰难的2016年 门窗企业稳练内功好好过

References

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